Arab Republic of Egypt
Name in local language:
جمهورية مصر العربية transliterated as Yumhuriyyatu Misr (Masr) al-`Arabiyya
Form of government:
- Founding date/ Date of independence: 1922 (independence from Britain)
- Date of constitution/reform: Currently being drafted. The former constitution was approved in 1971 and amended in 1980, 2005 and 2007. At present the highest legal provision is the Constitutional Declaration of March 2011.
- Form of state: Unitary
- Administrative divisions: 27 governorates
- Official language(s): Arabic
- Other spoken languages: English, Coptic, Greek and French
- Official religion: Sunni Islam
- Minorities: Copts (Christians), Nubians and Bedouins.
- Dominant actor(s): Army and Intelligence Services
- Elected institutions of government: government, Parliament (unicameral according to Constitution of 2013) and Presidency.
- Non-elected institutions of government: Supreme Council of the Armed Forces and provincial governors.
- Party system: emerging multi-party system. In the 2011 legislative elections four main blocs emerged: Islamist (Muslim Brotherhood), Salafist, Leftist and Liberal-Secular parties.
- Head of state: Abdel Fatah Al Sisi since June 8th of 2014. He won the Presidential elections held in May 2014 with 96,9% of votes.
- Head of government: Ibrahim Mahleb
- Minister of Foreign Affairs: Sameh Shoukry
- Minister of Interior: Magdy Abdel Ghafar
- Head(s) of Legislative Branch: suspended since July 2013
- Composition legislative branch: Link to graph
- Head of the Judiciary: Adly Mansour, president of the Constitutional Council
- Schematic representation of the political system: Link to graph
- Chief of State: Presidency of Egypt
- Ministry of Interior
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs:
- Parliament (lower house): People's Assembly
- Constitutional Council Supreme Constitutional Court
- al-Ahram: Leading Arabic-language Newspaper
- al-Masry al-Youm (Egypt Independent): Leading English-language Newspaper.
- Egypt Today Daily News Egypt English Ahram Online: English-language newspapers.
- Constitution I (text of the Constitutional Declaration, interim Constitution, with SCAF ammendment of 17 June 2012)
- Constitution II (text of the Constitutional Declaration made by the elected President Mohamed Morsi on August 12th, eliminating the SCAF addendum and modifying parts of the original March 2011 Declaration).
- Constitution III (definitive text, as approved in referendum held on December 15th and 22nd 2012). Link to the original Arab version.
- Constitution IV (current Constitution, as approved in referendum held on January 14-15th 2014, drafted on 3rd December 2013). Arab version.
- Electoral Law (text in Arabic of the law modifying the electoral system, approved in 2015
- Official Gazette (text in Arabic of both al-Jarida al-Rasmiyya and al-Waqai al-Masriyya)
- Civil Society Actors Involved in Elections Affairs: The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights