Republic of Sudan
Name in local language:
جمهورية السودان transliterated as al-Jumhuriyatu as-Sudan
Form of government:
- Founding date/ Date of independence: 1956, from the United Kingdom. Secession of Southern Sudan was effective on July 9th 2012, after the referendum held on January 9th of the same year.
- Date of constitution/reform: Interim Constitution approved on January 9th 2005.
- Form of state: Federal
- Administrative divisions: 18 states (wilayat)
- Official language(s): Arabic and English
- Other spoken languages: Nubian, Fur and Bedawiya
- Official religion: Multi-confessional
- Minorities: Fur / Beja / Nuba / Fallata / Sudanese Arab / Baggara / Zaghawa / Misseriya / Beja / Rashaida / Dinka / Hausa / Ja’alin / Shukria / Qahtana / Nubian / Bani Hassan / Bani Arak / Copts
- Dominant actor(s): The Presidency, below which are the National Congress Party (NCP) and the armed forces.
- Elected institutions of government: Presidency, bi-cameral parliament (Lower House appointed, Upper House indirectly elected), State Governors and State Parliaments.
- Non-elected institutions of government: N/A
- Party system: Hegemonic party system. The NCP is the ruling party. 2010 elections were the first since 1986 to be organized throughout the country having all political parties participating.
- Head of state: The Sovereignty Council of Sudan (interim). Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bachir was ousted in April 2019 coup d'état. Bachir was re-elected in April 2010, in power since 1989 following a coup d'Etat; proclaimed himself President on 16 October 1993. Also served as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces and General Secretary of the National Congress Party. Currently a 5-person body, the Sovereignty Council of Sudan, exerts as head of State for a transitional period of 33 months, ending in 2022.
- Head of government: Sovereignty Council of Sudan (interim).
- Minister of Foreign Affairs: Ibrahim Ghandour.
- Minister of Interior: Hamid Manan Al Mirghani.
- Head(s) of Legislative Branch: Mr. Ahmed Ibrahim El Tahir (People Assembly)
- Composition of the legislative branch: Link to diagram in PDF
- Head of the Judiciary: Mr. Jalal al-Din Mohammed Osman, president of the Supreme Court.
- Schematic representation of the political system: Link to graph in PDF
- Chief of State: Presidency
- Ministry of Interior
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Parliament (lower house)
- Constitutional Court
- al-Intibaha: Leading Arabic-language Newspaper
- Sudan Tribune: Leading English-language Internet Site, operated from France, has versions in Arabic and English.
- Electoral Law
- SUNA: Official News Agency