Republic of Sudan
Name in local language:
جمهورية السودان transliterated as al-Jumhuriyatu as-Sudan
Form of government:
- Founding date/ Date of independence: 1956, from the United Kingdom. Secession of Southern Sudan was effective on July 9th 2012, after the referendum held on January 9th of the same year.
- Date of constitution/reform: Interim Constitution approved on January 9th 2005.
- Form of state: Federal
- Administrative divisions: 18 states (wilayat)
- Official language(s): Arabic and English
- Other spoken languages: Nubian, Fur and Bedawiya
- Official religion: Multi-confessional
- Minorities: Fur / Beja / Nuba / Fallata / Sudanese Arab / Baggara / Zaghawa / Misseriya / Beja / Rashaida / Dinka / Hausa / Ja’alin / Shukria / Qahtana / Nubian / Bani Hassan / Bani Arak / Copts
- Dominant actor(s): The Presidency, below which are the National Congress Party (NCP) and the armed forces.
- Elected institutions of government: Presidency, bi-cameral parliament (Lower House appointed, Upper House indirectly elected), State Governors and State Parliaments.
- Non-elected institutions of government: N/A
- Party system: Hegemonic party system. The NCP is the ruling party. 2010 elections were the first since 1986 to be organized throughout the country having all political parties participating.
- Head of state: Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bachir (re-elected in April 2010, in power since 1989 following a coup d'Etat; proclaimed himself President on 16 October 1993) Also serves as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces and General Secretary of the National Congress Party.
- Head of government: Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bachir, re-elected in April 2010.
- Minister of Foreign Affairs: Ibrahim Ghandour.
- Minister of Interior: Hamid Manan Al Mirghani.
- Head(s) of Legislative Branch: Mr. Ahmed Ibrahim El Tahir (People Assembly)
- Composition of the legislative branch: Link to diagram in PDF
- Head of the Judiciary: Mr. Jalal al-Din Mohammed Osman, president of the Supreme Court.
- Schematic representation of the political system: Link to graph in PDF