Afghanistan

Official name: 
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Name in local language: 
جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان (in dari) transliterated Jumhuri-ye Islami-ye Afghanistan
Form of government: 
Republic
Political system: 
Presidential
  • Founding date/ Date of independence19 August 1919
  • Date of constitution/reform: 1923; 1964; 1976; 1987; 1990; current one from 2004
  • Form of state: Federal
  • Administrative divisions:
  • Official language(s): Dari (Afghan Persian) and Pashtun
  • Other spoken languages:  Other Turkoman languages such as Uzbek or Tayik; Baluchi, Pashai or Nuristani
  • Official religion: Confessional (Islamic)
  • Minorities: Tayik, Hazara, Uzbek, Turkoman, Qizilbash, Baluchi, among others
  • Dominant actor(s): War barons
  • Elected institutions of government: The Presidency, the Lower House of Parliament and the Provincial Councils (the District Councils will also be subject to public suffrage, although they have not yet been formed).
  • Non-elected  institutions of government: The Upper House of Parliament (indirectly elected)
  • Party system: There are political parties, but candidates run as independents.

Current authorities

  • Head of state: Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai, since September 2014. He left the country on August 15th 2021, as Taliban forces entered in Kabul and took control of almost all the country. In the weeks prior to Western forces withdrawal from Afghanistan (1st September 2021), taliban forces captured most of Afghan territory including the capital. The new state known as Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan lacks so far international recognition.
  • Head of government:there is no Prime Minister but after 2014 elections, the figure of Chief Executive was created for Abdullah Abdullah
  • Minister of Foreign Affairs: Salahuddin Rabbani
  • Minister of Interior: Taj Mohammad Jahid.
  • Head(s) of Legislative Branch: Wolesi Yirga: Abdul Rauf Ebrahimi; Meshrano Yirga: Fazel Hadi Muslemyar.
  • Composition legislative branch
  • Head of the Judiciary: Sayed Yosuf Halim.
  • Schematic representation of the political system

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