Libya or State of Libya
Name in local language:
ليبيا transliterated in English as Libya
Form of government:
- Founding date/ Date of independence: 1951 independence from the UK; 1947 - withdrawal of Italy from Libyan territory
- Date of constitution/reform: The 3rd of August Constitutional Declaration is still the key document pending approval of the new constitution
- Form of state: Federal, pending new constitution.
- Administrative divisions: 22 districts or shabiyat, for now. Historically Libya was divided into three regions: Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan.
- Official language(s): Arabic
- Other spoken languages: English, Italian, Tamazigh (Berber)
- Official religion: Confessional sunni, as expected in new constitution
- Minorities: Religious minorities include Ibadis and Christians - mainly Catholics. Main ethnic minorities are Amazigh, Touareg (also Berber) and Tubus. The Tubus are are a Nilotic people living in the south of Libya and northern Chad, who speak a groupo of Tebu languages.
- Dominant actor(s): two rival governments, libyan army (Gen. Haftar) tribes and militias spread all over the country
- Elected institutions of government: General National Congress, House of Representatives.
- Non-elected institutions of government: on December 2015, the United Nations announced the formation of a Government of National Accord (GAN), to be led by Fayez al-Serraj. However neither the Tripoli based government nor the Tobruk authorities have fully accepted its authority.
- Party system: still emerging; parties are tolerated but most candidates run as independent.
- Head of state: Fayez al-Sarraj is both the head of the Presidential Council and prime minister since March 30th 2016. He heads the UN recongnized Government of National Accord (GNA).
- Head of government: Abdul Hamid Dbeibah (interim PM since February 5th 2021)
- Minister of Foreign Affairs: Mohamed Imhamid Abdulaziz
- Minister of Interior: Ashour Suleiman Suwail
- Head(s) of Legislative Branch: Aguila Issah (chair of the House of Representatives)
- Composition legislative branch: link to graph in PDF
- Head of the Judiciary:
- Schematic representation of the political system: link to graph in PDF
- Prime Minister's Office - official website, Tobruk
- Rival Lybian Government (Salvation Government) in Tripoli
- General National Congress - official website
- Ministry of Interior - official website
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs - official website
- Leading national newspaper or websites in Arabic, AkhbarLibya24 and web portals Ajwa and al-Bawaba al-Wasat
- Leading English-language newspaper or website: Libya Herald and Libya Observer
- Constitution - Constitutional declaration of 03/08/2011
- Election Law - 2012 General National Congress Election Law
- Official Gazette - al-Jarida al-Rasmiyya - not available online as yet
- State news agency - Cloud Libyan News Agency (LANA is now split into two opposites agencies)
- High National Elections Commission HNEC