Libya

Official name: 
Libya or State of Libya
Name in local language: 
ليبيا transliterated in English as Libya
Form of government: 
Republic
Political system: 
Conflict situation
  • Founding date/ Date of independence: 1951 independence from the UK; 1947 - withdrawal of Italy from Libyan territory
  • Date of constitution/reform:  The 3rd of August Constitutional Declaration is still the key document pending approval of the new constitution
  • Form of state: Federal, pending new constitution.
  • Administrative divisions:  22 districts or shabiyat, for now. Historically Libya was divided into three regions:  Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan.
  • Official language(s):  Arabic
  • Other spoken languages:  English, Italian, Tamazigh (Berber)
  • Official religion: Confessional sunni, as expected in new constitution
  • Minorities: Religious minorities include Ibadis and Christians - mainly Catholics. Main ethnic minorities are Amazigh, Touareg (also Berber) and Tubus. The Tubus are are a Nilotic people living in the south of Libya and northern Chad, who speak a groupo of Tebu languages.
  • Dominant actor(s):  two rival governments, libyan army (Gen. Haftar) tribes and militias spread all over the country
  • Elected institutions of government: General National Congress, House of Representatives.
  • Non-elected institutions of government: on December 2015, the United Nations announced the formation of a National Agreement Government (NAG), to be led by Fayez al-Serraj. However neither the Tripoli based government nor the Tobruk authorities have fully accepted its authority.
  • Party system: still emerging; parties are tolerated but most candidates run as independent.

Current authorities

  • Head of state: Aguila Issah (disputed)
  • Head of government: Abdullah Al-Thanni (Tobruk), Khalifa Ghweil (Tripoli)
  • Minister of Foreign Affairs: Ali al-Aujali
  • Minister of Interior: Ashour Suleiman Suwail
  • Head(s) of Legislative Branch:  Aguila Issah (chair of the House of Representatives)
  • Composition legislative branch link to graph in PDF
  • Head of the Judiciary
  • Schematic representation of the political system:  link to graph in PDF

Links