Syrian Arab Republic
Name in local language:
الجمهوريّة العربيّة السّوريّة transliterated as al-Jumhuriyatu al-'arabiya as-suriya
Form of government:
- Founding date/ Date of independence: April 7, 1946
- Date of constitution/reform: Constitution adopted on March 13, 1973. Last amendment February 27, 2012
- Form of state: Unitary
- Administrative divisions: Syria is divided into 14 governorates (muhafazat). Governors are appointed by the Ministry of the Interior
- Official language(s): Arabic
- Other spoken languages: Kurdish, Armenian, Syriac and Turkic
- Official religion: No Official religion, but the constitution does require the President to be a Muslim
- Minorities: Ethnic Minorities: Kurds and Armenians; Religious Minorities: Druze, Christians, Jews and Alawites (minority in terms of population, but Alawites control the highest institutional offices)
- Dominant actor(s): Military elite and Presidential clan
- Elected institutions of government: Presidency, People’s Assembly (Majlis al-Shaab), municipal councils.
- Non-elected institutions of government: Government and provincial governments.
- Party system: The new constitution, promulgated on February 26, 2012, allows several parties to run for election to the People’s Assembly. But freedom of political parties does not exist.
- Head of state: Bashar al Assad, since 17 July 2000
- Head of government: Imad Khamis, since 9 August 2016, replacing Wael al-Halqi
- Minister of Foreign Affairs: Walid al-Moualem, since 14 April 2011
- Minister of Interior: Mohammad Ibrahim al-Shaar, since 14 April 2011
- Head(s) of Legislative Branch: Mohammad Jihad al-Laham, since 24 May 2012
- Composition legislative branch:
- Head of the Judiciary: Najm Hamad al-Ahmad (Minister of Justice), Adnan Zureiq (President Supreme Constitutional Court)
- Schematic representation of the political system: Link to PDF
- Parliament - official website (in Arabic)
- Ministry of Information - official website (in Arabic)
- Ministry of Interior - official website (in Arabic)
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs - official website (in Arabic)
- SANA - Syrian Arab News Agency - Official press agency (in Arabic, English and Spanish)
- Al-Thawra - Official newspaper of the Syrian government (in Arabic)
- Tishreen - Another widely-distributed state newspaper, mainly in Arabic, but with an English section called Syria Millennium.
- Constitution - English translation of the latest version (2012) of the constitution
- Al Baath - official party website (in Arabic)